Posts Tagged ‘ Universe ’

Reality Behind The Reality

Reality is an illusion.What is Reality? In simple words, reality can be defined as the true situation and the problem that actually exist in life in contrast to how you would like life to be or it can be defined as a thing that is actually experienced or seen in contrast to what people might imagine. Well! That’s what the word ‘reality’ means, but that’s not what the reality is all about. Let’s have a deep dive into the reality!

It’s not necessary that my reality is your reality. Reality is subjective, consisting of perceptions and ideas. From one’s point of view, the things which are something to someone, might be something different from someone else point of view. The things we feel and see is reality for us. It’s our idea and perception about the things that shapes our reality and we can have different ideas and perceptions about the same thing. So the question arises, what is absolute reality? Well! I can’t say anything about it; perhaps it’s too deep to understand absolute reality. Dreams seem very real when we are asleep but when we wake up we realize that what seemed so real when we were dreaming was just in the mind, we realize that it was just the dream, not the reality. Let’s take another example, for a small child or for a person who doesn’t know that stars are not visible at the day time due to sunlight, they would have some other perception or idea about this thing, they might believe that star just comes out in the night and disappear in the day, but the fact is stars doesn’t disappear, they are still there at their place. It’s like as more we learn and know about the things, there can be some change in the way we look at the things and therefore, our reality changes with our knowledge. We may have different views and opinions on one object but this doesn’t change the object, object doesn’t change depending upon our thoughts about them. They exist objectively whether or not we think about them, observe them, measure them or ignore them.

We all have our own world of reality; we observe things and then create our reality based on our knowledge, ideas and perceptions. It’s the observer who creates reality and we all are observer, observing the things around us. Whatever you observe is instantly real to you but this doesn’t means that anything which are not in your field of observation just doesn’t exist like I have stated the example of stars. Have you ever thought you heard something when actually there was nothing? Have you ever thought you saw someone and when you looked there, there was no one? Have you ever felt that the things you are experiencing or the things you are seeing, you have already seen and experienced in the past but actually who haven’t; have you ever felt the déjà vu? Have you ever looked at an illusion and been deceived that one line was longer than the other but actually it wasn’t? And there are examples of mirage and many other optical illusions. Aren’t there hundreds of occasions when we do deceive? This simply shows that our mind can get deceived, we can make reality which is not actually the reality or it’s just the reality for one person and for other person the things can be different. It is possible that things as we perceive them are not that way at all, sometimes things can be a lot different from our idea or observation about them.

There are few theories about multiverse(it is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes) which implies that there are multiple realities where every possible outcome is played out in a parallel universe. It’s impossible to prove this hypothetical theory but it’s an interesting hypothetical theory. What if there’s any truth in this hypothesis? Then will there be multiple realities? Are we living in past, present or future at the same time? Does our human brain perceiving just one possible interpretation of the ultimate reality? Our understanding of the universe is very much limited. What if our some of the current theories will get proved wrong? Then will we still have the same perception about the reality? The reality, the truth is out there but it’s complicated, will we ever understand it? Perhaps, we can one day!  Moreover, it can be much more astonishing and crazier than we can even imagine.

Have a good day ~ Vikas Sharma

Journey to the Edge of the Universe?

Journey to the edge of the universe.

Few things I would like to share about the Universe with all of you. So, here I go:

  • We all heard about Big Bang theory but ever you wonder where did the Big Bang happen? Well! Answer to this question is, it occurred everywhere in the Space.
  • There is a common assumption that the Big Bang was an explosion that occurred in an empty space and then that explosion expanded into the empty space. This assumption is wrong; Big Bang theory isn’t about explosion in the space. Space and time were created in the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, at the beginning of the universe, the space was completely filled with matter. The matter was originally extremely hot and very dense and then expanded and cooled to eventually produce the stars and galaxies we see in the universe today. Although space may have been concentrated into a single point at the Big Bang, it is equally possible that space was infinite at the Big Bang. In both scenarios the space was completely filled with matter which began to expand.
  • The Universe is probably about 14 billion years old, but the estimations vary. One problem with working out the age of the Universe is that there are stars in our galaxy which are thought to be older than 14 billion years; older than the estimated age of the Universe. So, either the stars must be younger, or the Universe older.
  • We can’t say anything about what existed before Big Bang. Some theories suggest that our universe is part of an infinity of universes called a multiverse which are being continuously created. This is possible but very hard to prove.
  • The universe we live in is expanding continuously. We know this because we see galaxies and groups of galaxies steadily moving apart in the universe. This expansion has been occurring since the universe was formed billions of years ago in a very hot, dense event that is known as Big Bang. The universe is expanding faster than the speed of light. Although at any local point within the universe, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, this is not true for the entire universe. There is no limit on how fast space can expand and there is no center of the expansion, the universe is simply expanding at all points. Observers in any galaxy see most of the other galaxies in the universe moving away from them.
  • We named our galaxy as Milky Way and our galaxy, the galaxy we live in is one among the billions in space and it contains billions of stars. Now you can imagine how giant is the Universe!
  • There may be a huge black hole in the very middle of the most of the galaxies. It is known as super-massive black hole. It is believed that possibly all galaxies, including the Milky Way, contain super-massive black holes at their centers. And it is also believed that if you fell into a black hole, you would stretch like spaghetti. There are white holes too which spray out matter and light like fountains.
  • The Universe may neither  has a center nor an edge, because according to Einstein’s theory of relativity, gravity bends all of space-time around into an endless curve.
  • Just for a fact, light travels at exactly 299,792,458 meters per second in a vacuum (about 300,000 kilometers per second or just over 1 billion kilometers per hour). As a comparison, sound waves travel at a paltry 343.14 meters per second (about 1,235 kilometers per hour), almost a million times slower than light waves, a day in Mercury lasts approximately as long as 59 days on earth and the red color of Mars comes from the rusted iron in its soil.
  • Ever wonder how can we calculate the force of gravity between two celestial bodies? We all can calculate it if we know the masses and the distance between the celestial bodies. Just multiply their masses together and then divide the total by the square of the distance between them. It’s a Newton’s law!

Connected!

We are all connected. Galaxies, stars, planets, people, animals, plants and everything around us or everything which has existence in this universe are connected to each other. We are like droplets in this universe. We all are energy and everything around us is energy and hence we are all connected with everything.

Diamond in the sky

lucy in the sky with diamondsThe universe in full of wonders and mysteries and this one is just one of them. There are uncountable stars in the universe and the one I’m writing about is lies in the Constellation of Centarus which is just 50 light years away from the earth. Astronomers nicknamed it “Lucy” after the Beatles song, Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds. Lucy, which is technically known as BPM 37093 – is actually a crystallized white dwarf star. A white dwarf is the hot cinder left behind when a star uses up its nuclear fuel and dies. It is made mostly of carbon and oxygen and surrounded by a thin layer of hydrogen and helium gases. In 1992 it was found that Lucy pulsates due to its core temperature dropping below 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit and in 1995 scientists decided to use Lucy for an experiment to see what she was made out of.

This experiment was to use the pulsation of the star and see if the crystallization theory was true. The process that was used is called Asteroseismology or Stellar Seismology which uses their frequency spectra to determine what the composition of the star is. The same way that geologists study the interior of the Earth during earthquakes.

Scientists had found that approximately 90% of Lucy’s mass had crystallized and since Lucy interior core is mostly made of Carbon and therefore, this means Lucy is a diamond, it’s a diamond star of 10 billion trillion trillion carats, astronomers have discovered. Lucy, the diamond star completely outclasses the largest diamond on Earth, the 546-carat Golden Jubilee which was cut from a stone brought out of the Premier mine in South Africa.

Astronomers expect our Sun will become a white dwarf when it dies 5 billion years from now. Some two billion years after that, the Sun’s ember core will crystallize as well, leaving a giant diamond in the center of the solar system.

Reference – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/3492919.stm

Random thought

There is something beyond our human understanding that we may never reach. Some people may keep exploring, some may keep arguing and some may stay at bay; this is the way we are living and moving in this endless wonderful universe. Life is a play and you a have role in it, it’s up to you which character you want to play and how much you can dedicate yourself to your character. In the end what matters most, is how well did you live and how much you have shared with the world around you; so that after the end of the play somewhere you still be remained in this world, in your world, in the world around you.

look, just look how wonderful is this universe and we all are part of it, living on the earth under the same sky!

Higgs boson: Scientists find signs of missing ‘God particle’

“Scientists said they had found signs of the Higgs boson, an elementary particle believed to have played a vital role in the creation of the universe after the Big Bang”.
First of all I would like to explain what is the Higgs boson particle and why do people call it the ‘god particle’ before presenting its whole report.

What is the Higgs boson?

This particle is named after Peter Higgs, an Edinburgh University physicist, the Higgs boson particle is crucial to understanding the origin of mass and it has been called “the brick that built the universe,” “the angel of creation” and “the god particle.” It is thought to have emerged from the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago and have brought much of the rest of the flying debris together to form galaxies, stars and planets.

Why do people call it the ‘god particle’?

Its theistic nickname was coined by Nobel prizewinning physicist Leon Lederman, but Higgs himself is no fan of the label. According to Higgs, it wasn’t even Lederman’s choice to call it the god particle: “He wanted to refer to it as that ‘goddamn particle’ and his editor wouldn’t let him.”

Now, What Report says:

GENEVA: Scientists said on Tuesday they had found signs of the Higgs boson, an elementary particle believed to have played a vital role in the creation of the universe after the Big Bang.

Scientists at the CERN physics research centre near Geneva said, however, they had found no conclusive proof of the existence of the particle which, according to prevailing theories of physics, gives everything in the universe its mass.

“If the Higgs observation is confirmed… this really will be one of the discoveries of the century,” said Themis Bowcock, a professor of particle physics at Britain’s Liverpool University.

“Physicists will have uncovered a keystone in the makeup of the Universe… whose influence we see and feel every day of our lives.”

The leaders of two experiments, ALTAS and CMS, revealed their findings to a packed seminar at CERN, where they have tried to find traces of the elusive boson by smashing particles together in the Large Hadron Collider at high speed.

“Both experiments have the signals pointing in essentially the same direction,” said Oliver Buchmueller, senior physicist on CMS. “It seems that both Atlas and us have found the signals are at the same mass level. That is obviously very important.”

Fabiola Gianotti, the scientist in charge of the ATLAS experiment, told a seminar to discuss the findings. She said “I think it would be extremely kind of the Higgs boson to be here, but it is too early” for final conclusions, she said. “More studies and more data are needed. The next few months will be very exciting… I don’t know what the conclusions will be.”

While its discovery would cement current knowledge about particles such as electrons and photons, results of work at CERN could also prove it does not exist. Such an outcome would undermine the foundations of accepted theories of the make-up of the universe.

“If the first inklings of the Higgs boson are confirmed, then this is just the start of the adventure to unlock the secrets of the fundamental constituents of the Universe,” said Stephen Haywood, Head of the Atlas Group at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

The ATLAS results were followed by explanation of the second experiment, CMS.

“We are homing in on the Higgs,” said Claire Shepherd-Themistocleus, Head of the CMS Group at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

“We have had hints today of what its mass might be and the excitement of scientists is palpable. Whether this is ultimately confirmed or we finally rule out a low mass Higgs boson, we are on the verge of a major change in our understanding of the fundamental nature of matter.”

Struggling to cope with demand from Higgs-hunters. “It can still happen that it is a fluctuation, but all we see from both experiments is compatible with what we would expect for a Higgs signal to build up,” said Buchmueller.

“But we really need the data from next year to be sure of what we’re seeing.”

References: Times of India (The article published in  Times of India on 13th dec 2011 under the heading – Higgs boson: Scientists find signs of missing ‘God particle’)

Scientists Report Second Sighting of Faster-Than-Light Neutrinos…

Few scientists are betting against Einstein yet, but the phantom neutrinos of Opera are still eluding explanation.

Two months after scientists reported that they had clocked subatomic particles known as neutrinos going faster than the speed of light, to the astonishment and vocal disbelief of most of the world’s physicists, the same group of scientists, known as Opera, said that it had performed a second experiment that confirmed its first results and eliminated one possible explanation for how the experiment could have gone wrong.

But the group admitted that many questions remain. “This is not the end of the story,” said Antonio Ereditato of the University of Bern in Switzerland, the spokesman for the collaboration, explaining that physicists would not accept the result that neutrinos could go faster than light until other experiments had come up with the same conclusion. “We are convinced, but that is not enough in science,” he said.

Other physicists said they remained skeptical that the universe was about to be overturned.

The speed of light was established as the cosmic speed limit, at least for ordinary matter in ordinary space, in 1905 by Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity (now known as special relativity), foreclosing the possibility of time travel into the past or of timely travel to other stars.

Neutrinos, though ghostly in many regards — they are able to traverse planets and walls of lead like light through a window, and to shape-shift from one of three varieties of the particle to another along the way — are part of the universe, and so there was no reason to expect that Einstein’s stricture should not apply to them as well.

But over the course of the last three years, in experiments designed to investigate this shape shifting, neutrinos produced at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, and beamed underground to the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy, an underground facility about 450 miles away, arrived about 58 billionths of a second sooner than would a light beam, according to Opera. The group is based at Gran Sasso, which is near L’Aquila; CERN is in Geneva.

When these results were presented to a meeting at CERN in September, after a prairie fire of blog rumors, they were greeted by fierce skepticism. Among the problems with the original experiment, scientists said, was that the neutrinos were produced in bursts 10,000 billionths of a second long — much bigger than the discrepancy in arrival time.

Last month CERN retooled so that the neutrinos could be produced in shorter bursts, only 3 billionths of a second long, making it easier to match neutrinos at Gran Sasso with neutrinos at CERN, and the experiment was briefly repeated. The neutrinos still arrived early, about 62 billionths of a second early, in good agreement with the original result and negating the possibility, the Opera team said, that the duration of the neutrino pulse had anything to do with the results.

Physicists said the new paper had answered some of the questions about the experiment, but many remain: for example, about how the clocks were synchronized between Geneva and Gran Sasso, and how the distance between them was ascertained. “It does appear that they have done a good job,” said John Learned, a neutrino physicist at the University of Hawaii at Manoa who was not involved in the experiment. But, he added, “If there is a deep systematic error in the calculation of expected time difference, this remains.”

Alvaro de Rujula, a CERN theorist, said there were two interpretations of the experiment. “One is that they have stumbled upon a revolutionary discovery; the other, on which I would place my bet, is that they are still making and not finding the very same error.”

In the meantime, Einstein sleeps peacefully.

Asked if he had seen any interesting theoretical explanations of how neutrinos could violate the speed of light among the papers that have been flooding the internet these past two months, Dr. Ereditato demurred. “That’s not our business,” he said. “A good experimentalist tries to be as cool as possible.”

Dr. Learned and Dr. de Rujula both said there were no convincing theories out there yet. “The theory papers are amusing in that it more and more points out how very much trouble this result will cause, if verified,” Dr. Learned said in an e-mail.

He added, “Fun!”

BY DENNIS OVERBYE
“A version of this article appeared in print on November 19, 2011, on page A8 of the New York edition with the headline: Faster-Than-Light Neutrinos Are Seen Again by Scientists.”